Select resources

Title Well-being Connectedness Awareness Agency Mastery Primary Construct Secondary Construct
PISA Student-level scale indices
Psychological well-being Cognitive well-being
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)
Psychological well-being Cognitive well-being
Remote Associates Test
Ryff's Psychological Well being scale
Well-being Sense of purpose
Scale of Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Orientation
Motivation Cognitive well-being
School Climate Questionnaire
Social well-being Physical well-being
School Engagement Scale – Behavioral, Emotional, and Cognitive Engagement
Self Regulation assessment
Self-regulation Agency
Self-efficacy scale
Self-management scale
Social Awareness scale
Social awareness
Stirling Children’s Wellbeing Scale (SCWBS)
Psychological well-being Social well-being
Student Perception of Wellbeing Questionnaire (SPWQ)
Social well-being Psychological well-being
Student Well-Being Index (WBI)
Psychological well-being Social well-being
Survey on Social and Emotional Skills (SSES)
Social and emotional learning Agency



Important Points to Consider

Research and measurement on student leadership outcomes is constantly evolving. Many of the instruments available in this library include self-report surveys, where students self-assess their own levels of leadership. When interpreting data on student leadership outcomes, and in particular for self-reported surveys, there are common phenomenon that can occur such as: 

  • Reference bias: When students become more familiar with student leadership constructs, they become increasingly likely to rate themselves more judicially which may lead to lower self-reported evaluations over time. Watch this video of Dr. Angela Duckworth and Dr. David Yaeger who discuss this phenomenon and many others. 
  • Developmental effects on student leadership: Some research show that student social and emotional skills do not exhibit uniform growth as they develop from childhood to adolescence and into puberty, much unlike academic/cognitive ability. (West et al., 2018; OECD, 2021)

Awareness of these phenomena can support you in how to interpret this data. Additional considerations are provided for specific tools in the library. 

Given that rating scales are very common, both in this library and in educational measurement more broadly, it is worth noting the measurement issues when using these types of instruments. Because rating scales are often used for self-reports, subjectivity can be an issue. Self reports are especially prone to the following main biases: 

  • Social desirability: This is the tendency for people to answer in a way that they are shown to be more desirable or to conform to social norms 
  • Acquiescence: This is the tendency to agree when unsure, especially among respondents who are eager to please or are likely to be obedient (such as children).
  • Central tendency: This is the tendency to avoid the extreme responses (e.g., Strongly agree/disagree). Related to the social desirability bias, this often results in underestimating the actual prevalence of strong views.