PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)
The PISA ESCS is a composite score built by the indicators parental education (PARED), highest parental occupation (HISEI), and home possessions (HOMEPOS) including books in the home via principal component analysis (PCA). (See description of these three variables above). The rationale for using these three components was that socio-economic status has usually been seen as based on education, occupational status and income. As no direct income measure has been available from the PISA data, the existence of household items has been used as a proxy for family wealth.